Mary Lim

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

typography: reading 3

read: in Typography, Graphic Design in Context:
(due 9/27)
Primer 4, pgs 154 – 161
Production, pgs 164 – 166
Craft, pgs 173 – 176
Materality, pgs 180 – 181
Hierarchy, pgs 47 – 50
Hierarchy, pgs 85 – 88

PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION
Typesetting Revolution
hand typesetting: metal and wood

  • Gutenberg bible was the first complete book in Europe (though actually, the very first book ever printed was in China) 
  • before then, everything was hand lettered using calligraphy --> the Gutenberg bible had a typeface similar to calligraphy
  • Jensen: he designed letters so that they would work in any combination
    • was the first typeface that was uniform
  • stereotyping and the pantograph speeded up printing 
machine typesetting: hot type
  • the Merganthaler Linotype machine turned the production of metal type into something done mechanically --> simply melted slugs to create new sentences, useful for newspaper industry
phototypesetting: cold type
  • Diatype, Compugraphic, Phototypositor, Varityper moved type composition from the "metal chase to drafting table" --> letterforms could be manipulated
  • letteringspacing could be decreased for the first time
digital typesetting: room temperature-temperature type
  • (DTP) PostScript --> crisp, many possibitilies, probably what we will continue to be using for awhile
MEANS AND MEDIUM
Typographic Craft
  • Peter Dormer says that craft is "knowledge that empowers the maker to take charge of the technology." --> requires a lot of experience to fully understand
  • typographic craft requires 3 things:
    • typographer
    • his tools
    • and the artifact in the process of becoming
MATERIALITY
Materiality and Message
  • an impression of type can tell us it was printed using a letterpress, 
  • "we feel typography through both touch and sight."
  • problem of indentation of the paper by the press --> solved with offset printing
HIERARCHY
Structure
  • what is seen first, priorities
  • structures "delimit where and how elements behave..."
  • most basic of typographical structure is changing the text in regards to space
Relational Hierarchy
  • the importance of the phrase in relation to other text
  • visual prominence "establish the order we see things" 
  • movement complicates hierarchy --> depending on how it is presented, anything can be emphasized in a moving picture through movement
HIERARCHY II
  • most basic: letters aligned on a baseline
  • text stacked on vertical margin --> alignment is key to hierarchy: justification, centered, and asymmetry

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