The use of convex lens
The earliest form of glasses emerged with Seneca the Younger, who wrote, "Letters, however small and indistinct, are seen enlarged and more clearly through a globe or glass filled with water." He has also said that he watched the "gladiatorial games using an emerald as a corrective lens." Later, Grossesteste's treatise De iride mentions using optics to read small letters. Roger Bacon then wrote about the magnifying properties of lenses. Sunglasses were invented in China in the 12th century. Inuits also created snow goggles for eye protection and narrowed their field of vision.
Invention of Eyeglasses
The first eyeglasses were made in Italy at about 1286 originally consisting of thin pieces of glass which were placed on the eyeball. Alessandro della Spina invented eyeglasses. By 1301 there were guild regulations in Venice governing the sale of eyeglasses.
Some have suggested that the history of spectacles may have originated in India instead of Europe. However, Joseph Needham showed that the mention of spectacles in the manuscript Laufer used to justify the invention of them in Asia did not exist in older versions of that manuscript...they were later added during the Ming dynasty, after eyeglasses were invented.
Although there have been claims that Salvino degli Armati of Florence invented eyeglasses, it was revealed that it was a hoax. The earliest mentions of eyeglasses were from China in the 15th century, however, those sources say that the eyeglasses were imported to China.
Johannes Kepler published the first explanation as to why convex and concave lenses could correct presbyopia and myopia. The earliest evidence for the use of eyeglasses in Tommaso de Modena's 1352 portrait of the cardinal Hugh de Provence reading in a scriptorium. Another early example was found north in the Alps in the church of Bad Wildungen, Germany in 1403.
Benjamin Franklin, who had both myopia and presbyopia, invented bifocals. Others may have created it before him, but historians have proved that Franklin may have even created it 50 years earlier than it was recorded. The first lenses for astigmatism were created by an astronomer named George Airy in 1825.
Over time, the construction of spectacle frames also evolved. Early eyepieces were designed to be either held in place by hand or by exerting pressure on the nose (pince-nez). Savonarola suggested that eyepieces could be held in place by a ribbon passed over the wearer's head, this in turn secured by the weight of a hat. The modern style of glasses, held by temples passing over the ears, was developed some time before 1727, possibly by the British optician Edward Scarlett. These designs were not immediately successful, however, and various styles with attached handles such as "scissor glasses" and lorgnettes were also fashionable from the second half of the 18th century and into the early 19th century.
In the early 20th century, Moritz von Rohr at Zeiss (with the assistance of H. Boegehold and A. Sonnefeld), developed the Zeiss Punktal spherical point-focus lenses that dominated the eyeglass lens field for many years.
Despite the increasing popularity of contact lenses and laser corrective eye surgery glasses remain very common, as their technology has improved. For instance, it is now possible to purchase frames made of special memory metal alloys that return to their correct shape after being bent. Other frames have spring-loaded hinges. Either of these designs offers dramatically better ability to withstand the stresses of daily wear and the occasional accident. Modern frames are also often made from strong, light-weight materials such as titanium alloys, which were not available in earlier times.
Historical Timeline of spectacles
DIGITAL REVOLUTION IN DESIGN
First Graphical User Interface
Early Digital Typography
Pioneers of Digital Type
Designing for the Screen
The Impact of the Computer on Designers
Until the late 20th century, the graphic-design discipline had been based on handicraft processes: layouts were drawn by hand in order to visualize a design; type was specified and ordered from a typesetter; and type proofs and photostats of images were assembled in position on heavy paper or board for photographic reproduction and platemaking. Over the course of the 1980s and early ’90s, however, rapid advances in digital computer hardware and software radically altered graphic design.
Software for Apple's 1984 Macintosh computer, such as the MacPaint™ program by computer programmer Bill Atkinson and graphic designer Susan Kare, had a revolutionary human interface. Tool icons controlled by a mouse or graphics tablet enabled designers and artists to use computer graphics in an intuitive manner. The Postscript™ page-description language from Adobe Systems, Inc., enabled pages of type and images to be assembled into graphic designs on screen. By the mid-1990s, the transition of graphic design from a drafting-table activity to an onscreen computer activity was virtually complete.
Digital computers placed typesetting tools into the hands of individual designers, and so a period of experimentation occurred in the design of new and unusual typefaces and page layouts. Type and images were layered, fragmented, and dismembered; type columns were overlapped and run at very long or short line lengths; and the sizes, weights, and typefaces were often changed within single headlines, columns, and words. Much of this research took place in design education at art schools and universities. American designer David Carson—art director of Beach Culture magazine in 1989–91, Surfer in 1991–92, and Ray Gun magazine in 1992–96—captured the imagination of a youthful audience by taking such an experimental approach into publication design.
Rapid advances in onscreen software also enabled designers to make elements transparent; to stretch, scale, and bend elements; to layer type and images in space; and to combine imagery into complex montages. For example, in a United States postage stamp from 1998, designers Ethel Kessler and Greg Berger digitally montaged John Singer Sargent's portrait of Frederick Law Olmsted with a photograph of New York’s Central Park, a site plan, and botanical art to commemorate the landscape architect. Together these images evoke a rich expression of Olmsted’s life and work.
The digital revolution in graphic design was followed quickly by public access to the Internet. A whole new area of graphic-design activity mushroomed in the mid-1990s when Internet commerce became a growing sector of the global economy, causing organizations and businesses to scramble to establish Web sites. Designing a Web site involves the layout of screens of information rather than of pages, but approaches to the use of type, images, and colour are similar to those used for print. Web design, however, requires a host of new considerations, including designing for navigation through the site and for using hypertext links to jump to additional information. An example of strong Web design is the Herman Miller for the Home Web site, designed by BBK Studio in 1998. These designers created a strong visual identity, effective navigation, and informational clarity. Attributes that added to the effectiveness of this Web site included a consistent colour palette, an informative use of pictures of products, and a scrolling montage of products.
Because of the international appeal and reach of the Internet, the graphic-design profession is becoming increasingly global in scope. Moreover, the integration of motion graphics, animation, video feeds, and music into Web-site design has brought about the merging of traditional print and broadcast media. As kinetic media expand from motion pictures and basic television to scores of cable-television channels, video games, and animated Web sites, motion graphics are becoming an increasingly important area of graphic design.In the 21st century, graphic design is ubiquitous; it is a major component of our complex print and electronic information systems. It permeates contemporary society, delivering information, product identification, entertainment, and persuasive messages. The relentless advance of technology has changed dramatically the way graphic designs are created and distributed to a mass audience. However, the fundamental role of the graphic designer—giving expressive form and clarity of content to communicative messages—remains the same.